Ricardo da COSTA (org.)
Mirabilia 03 (2003)
Mirabilia 3 (2003)
The Medical Wars: Proximity of Etnic and Geographic Frontiers between athenians and ethiopians in the VI and V B. C. Centuries
Original title: As Guerras Médicas: Proximidade de fronteiras étnicas e geográficas entre atenienses e etíopes nos séculos VI e V a. C.
Keywords: Persians Wars, athenians, ethiopians, ethnics contacts.
This article presents the Persian Wars as a historic factor able to agglutinate the ethnic and geographic frontier between athenians and others ethnics groups if his kept relations. However, our attention will be look upon in this abstract the interactions existing among athenians and ethiopians in the VI and V B. C. Centuries.
Claudia Beltrão da Rosa
Original title: De haruspicum responso: religião e política em Cícero
Keywords: Cicero’s Discourses, Republican Rome, Roman Religion.
Analysis of aspects of the roman religion, as put forwards in Cicero’s De haruspicum responso
Ana Teresa Marques Gonçalves
Original title: Os Imperadores Severos e a Aproximação com as Imagens dos Antonino
Keywords: Emperor, Roma, Severan Age.
The objective of this article is to analyse the approximation of the Severan Emperors with the images utilized for the Antoninan rulers, using the informations of the Herodian, Cassius Dio, Sextus Aurelius Victor, Flavius Eutropius’ books, the Historia Augusta, Epitome de Caesaribus, inscriptions and coins.
Cláudia Andréa Prata Ferreira
Original title: O Pacto da Memória: Interpretação e Identidade na Fonte Bíblica
Keywords: Identity, Judaism, Memory.
Interpretation of the biblical and rabbbinic texts in the Jewish Tradition. We understood the biblical and rabbbinic texts as being a project of construction of the memory. That memory, built literarily starting from an oral tradition and writing, evidences the singular relationship between the human and the divine and it tries to legitimate in its speech the idea of a Religion and Tradition of the Book. That memory constitutes, then, the essential element in the project of construction of the individual or collective identity of the People of the Book (in Hebrew, Am Ha'Sefer). We established the relationship memory and religion tends as central element the Hebrew word zikaron " memory". The originality of the present project is elencar a group of elements us which the construction and formation of the identity and memory are articulated in the Judaism tends as referencial the sources ju-daicas, in particular, produced them in language hebraica. Memory, Language and speech in the narrative, interpreting the specific case of the hebrew biblical narrative and the rabbinic narrative: we privileged the biblical and rabbinic sources, pillars of the Jewish faith.
Original title: Los Perfumes en el Cristianismo
Keywords: Christendom, aromas, incense, myrrh, perfumes, spikenard.
In several religions, pleasant smells –perfumes– play an important role in the rites and in the liturgy, during meditation and in the prayers, while communing with the divinities. Christianity did not keep aside from this practice but infused it with a new signification. Christ Himself entered in contact with the most valuable perfumes since his early childhood. The incense and the myrrh offered by the wise men from Orient, the oil of spikenard and the funeral oils used to anoint His body mark only the initiation of a relation with the aromas which will flourish in Jesus Christ’s legacy for the many centuries in which Christendom was formed and consolidated.
Death, Human Sacrifice and Rebirth: An Iconographical Interpretation of Viking Runestone of Hammar I
Original title: Morte, Sacrifício Humano e Renascimento: Uma interpretação Iconográfica da Runestone Viking de Hammar I
Keywords: Viking culture, human sacrifice and ritual, megalithical epigraphy, religion and power.
The present article still interprets an iconographic source without detailed academic studies, the Viking runestone of Hammar I, originary of the island of Gotland (Sweden). An important document on the religious mentality of the Scandinavians, its mythological conceptions on the deities, human sacrifices, life after the death and some important symbols for the cult to the Óðinn god. Another basic aspect of our interpretation is the possibility to compare the classic Icelandic sources, writings during the Christian period after-Viking (séc. XI d.C.), with an original megalithical document of the Age Viking heathen (séc. IX d.C.). Our main methodologies for analysis had been the epigraphical techniques supplied by the British runologist Raymond Ian Page and the techniques of iconographic interpretation of the French historian Régis Boyer. As conclusion, we could verify that runestone of Gotland had a intentional "pedagogical" function in terms of imaginary religious, confirming ideas and strengthening aspects of the odinic cult. It structuralized the image and the faith of that warlike died in battle they could inside to the hall of the Óðinn god, rewarding its martial life.
Andrea Vanina Neyra
Original title: La tradición en la cultura medieval: el Decretum de Burchard de Worms
Keywords: autority, canonical collection, tradition.
The principle of tradition and the use of authorities had an important role in medieval Christian culture and its transmission. Burchard of Worms – who was in charge of a bishopric at the beginning of the 11th century – used that context to legitimate his work. He adjudged all the things that were useful and worth from it to God, without looking forward to a personal recognition. However, he is recognized because of the contemporary elements in his jurisdiction, which are mentioned in his work.
Original title: Mécia, Matilde e Beatriz: Imagens Femininas Refletidas nas Rainhas de Portugal do Século XIII
Keywords: image, medieval woman, queens.
Presentation of the importance of medieval woman by the study of portuguese cronicles from the 14th to 16th centuries about three queens: Mecia Lopes of Haro, Matilde of Bologne and Beatriz. These cronicles had been written to explain the governation of the ladies’ husbands, respectively Sancho II, king deposed of Portugal in 1245 and his brother Afonso III, responsible for the deposition and king from 1248 until 1279, year of his death. It is possible to see a little of these women in the interlineation of the texts. While Matilde and Beatriz represent the woman-merchandize, as elements of the nobility to garantee to men properties and titles – reason by which Afonso III has got married for the second time when he was already married – Mécia represents the role of the devil-woman, the Eve-sinner, who thanks to her "whitchcrafts" and "bad advises" has taken his husband to be deposed from the power.
Moisés Romanazzi Tôrres
Original title: A Filosofia Política de Marsílio de Pádua: Os Novos Conceitos de Pax, de Civitas e de Lex
Keywords: Aristote, Marsiglio of Padua, Political Philosophy.
Marsiglio of Padua (c.1280-c.1343), directly from Aristote, redifined in natural perspective three central conceits of christian thought: peace (pax), political society (civitas) and law (lex). This redefinition is present in Prima Dictio of Defensor Pacis (finished at 1324). In this article, i develop, for each conceit, a history of development in the occidental thought, to determinate the Marsiglio’s rupture. After, i develop, same for each conceit, the aristotelic thought, to demonstrate as the Marsiglio’s perspectives are connecteds, directly, at Aristote.
Doctrinal elaboration of a popular devotion. Biblical presence in Los Milagros de Guadalupe (Spain, fifteenth century)
Gerardo Fabián Rodríguez
Original title: Elaboración doctrinal de una devoción popular. Presencia bíblica en Los Milagros de Guadalupe (España, siglo XV)
Keywords: History of Spain, Miracle, Virgin of Guadaloupe.
In this text, I suggest a selection and study of "miraglos" contained in the firsts four códices of Los Milagros de Guadalupe from the assumptions of the sociolingüistics and devotional sociology. This kind of approach will let me analyze the Christian symbology underlying these texts and give a posible history about the representations of the Church around the Guadaloupian devotion, as the Jeronimian monks project, when writing down every and each miracle, doctrinal arguments considered as esential in the Christian discourse of the time. In this particular case, the narrative plot of the miracula transmits a real doctrinal wisdom, appealing to biblical texts, stories and basis, specially from the New Testament. This appealing to the Bible is not explicit but, on the contrary, quotations and relations implicited in the narratives have to be discovered. From this cut of the Guadaloupian corpus, I will tackle the following topics: the importance of the baptism as a sacrament, the revelation understood as a divine grace, the image of Mary as Mother of God, the different signs of the imitatio Christi, particularly The Passion and the lion’s symbology.
The Portuguese Medievo in Times of Free Faith: Relations between Jews and Christians in Portugal before the Catholic Monopoly Initiated in 1497
Angelo Adriano Faria de Assis
Original title: O Medievo Português em tempos de livre crença: relações entre judeus e cristãos em Portugal antes do monopólio católico iniciado em 1497
Keywords: Jews, Liberty of Faith, Medieval times in Portugal.
In december of 1496, the king of Portugal D. Manuel I (1495-1521) ordered the expulsion of jews from the kingdom in a period of ten months –decree that would be transformed, in 1497, in forced convertion to the catholicism. It was the beginning of the catholics’ monopoly in the portuguese world, finishing the time of free faith that was a characteristic of Portugal during the Medieval age. This article should make an analysis about the "Jews’ time" in Portugal, in a period that includes since the beginning of the jewish presence in the Iberian Peninsula – during the Flavio Vespasiano’s governement – until the expulsion from Spain and Portugal, in the end of the XV century – moment that deserves more attention -, giving importance to the relations between jews and christians, the contributions of jews to the portuguese society, the causes of the proihibition of free faith and the general changes to jews – converted in new-christians – and to the kingdom.
Maria da Penha Casado Alves
Original title: O Cavaleiro inexistente e o homem sem sombra – ou de quando não se vê a imagem no espelho
Keywords: Cinema, Knighthood, Literature.
This text aims to analyze the character Agilulfo, Carlos Magno`s Knight who is presented in the other work O Cavaleiro Inexistente by Italo Calvino and Sebastian Caine, protagonist of the film Hollowman by Paul Verhoeven. This intersemiotics approach make a critical path which emphasizes relative questions about identity related to be or not be, human dilemmas that have wished the most different expressions in life and art.